India’s 4 Path-Breaking Initiatives: Response Of The World (Half I) – Evaluation


Prior to now few years, beneath the dynamic management of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India has launched 4 path-breaking future-oriented initiatives: the Worldwide Photo voltaic Alliance (ISA), World Bio-fuel Alliance (GBA), Indo-Pacific Ocean Initiative (IPOI), and Coalition for Catastrophe Response Initiative (CDRI). Many international locations throughout continents and areas have responded positively and joined the initiatives and agreed to work along with India, whereas some are nonetheless contemplating and analyzing the deserves thereof from the standpoint of their nationwide pursuits. This text makes an try to look at and analyse every of those 4 initiatives, with concentrate on the response of nations within the Asian area and analyse why some pleasant international locations are quite reticent about India’s initiatives, all of that are non-controversial and human-centric. Written in two elements, whereas Half I makes an in depth evaluation of the ISA and GBA, Half II shall assess the importance of the CDRI and IPOI and supply some related coverage suggestions.   

Worldwide Photo voltaic Alliance (ISA)

The Worldwide Photo voltaic Alliance (ISA) is an initiative collectively launched by India and French President Francois Hollande on 30 November 2015 on the sidelines of United Nations Local weather Change Convention (COP21 or UNFCCC) in Paris. It was opened for signatures in Marrakech, Morocco in November 2016, on the sidelines of the Marrakech Local weather Change Convention and was formally launched on 6 December 2017 on the entry into power of the framework settlement. It’s an action-oriented, member-driven, collaborative platform for elevated growth of photo voltaic power applied sciences. This may facilitate power entry to the signatory international locations, apart from making certain power safety, and driving power transition in its member international locations. The membership to this multinational organisation is open to all of the photo voltaic resource-rich states, which lie totally or partially between the Tropic of Most cancers and the Tropic of Capricorn and space members of the United Nations. Its purpose is to advertise photo voltaic power and sustainable growth by cooperation amongst solar-rich international locations. 

The first goal is to collectively work for the environment friendly exploitation of photo voltaic power to scale back dependence on fossil-based fuels. The headquarters is ready up in Gurugram in India. The members of the ISA decide to take coordinated actions by packages and actions that can combination the calls for for photo voltaic finance, photo voltaic applied sciences, innovation, analysis and growth, and capacity-building.  (1)

As many international locations on this planet race for financial growth, demand for power has additionally elevated. Vitality-deficient international locations specifically depending on import for his or her power wants have been diversifying their sources of provides to maintain the financial growth of their international locations. Associated to that is the extra crucial local weather change problem. Due to this fact transition to solar-based power sources is the logical and fascinating path. From this attitude, the ISA initiative is certainly path-breaking.

The ISA is guided by ‘In the direction of 1000’ technique which goals to mobilise $1,000 billion of investments in photo voltaic power options by 2030. The plan is to ship power entry to 1,000 million individuals utilizing clear power options, leading to set up of 1,000 GW of photo voltaic power capability.

At present, the ISA has 9 complete packages, every specializing in a definite utility that might assist scale the deployment of photo voltaic power options. The main target of this system is on 4 precedence areas – Analytics and advocacy, Capability Constructing, Programmatic Help, and Readiness and Enabling Actions. These precedence areas are anticipated to create a beneficial atmosphere for photo voltaic power investments to take root within the nation.

The ISA is critical for India because it gives a worldwide management function to combat in opposition to local weather change. As a begin, India contributed $27 million for creating constructing infrastructure and recurring expenditure for 5 years. Regrettably, the event international locations are usually not responding to fund liberally to the renewable power initiatives in growing international locations. India subsequently has extra accountability to mobilise personal funds. The ISA may also should work in tandem with different our bodies such because the Worldwide Renewable Vitality Company and the Renewable Vitality and Vitality Effectivity Partnership Madagascar. 

Membership Difficulty

On its first day itself, 15 November 2016, sixteen international locations signed the Settlement: India, Brazil, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Dominican Republic, the Republic of Guinea, Mali, Nauru, Niger, Tanzania, Tuvalu, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Burkino Faso, Bangladesh and Madagascar. By 17 November, Guinea Bissau, Fiji, France additionally signed the settlement. Subsequently, Vanuatu and Liberia additionally signed the settlement. Subsequently, a further 107 international locations joined the settlement, together with many main international locations, such because the US, Japan, Algeria, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Brazil, India, Argentina and Australia. A conclave began from 30 November 2015 for the sunshine grouping, referred to as the InSPA (Worldwide Company for Photo voltaic Coverage & Utility).

Subsequently, many different international locations additionally joined the alliance, elevating the overall membership to 106. What remained conspicuous was the absence of 5 members of the ASEAN grouping who’re nonetheless allegedly analyzing the phrases and circumstances of the initiative. Of the 10-member group, solely Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, Cambodia and Brunei have joined. Since it’s an Indian initiative, China has stayed away. However what surprises one is that whereas two members of the bloc – Cambodia and Myanmar – with perceived pro-China stance have joined, Vietnam’s reluctance to be within the fold defies logic. 

India has strategic partnership with a number of the ASEAN member international locations. There are a lot of regional initiatives such EAS, ADMM-Plus, and others during which India aligns its insurance policies with these pleasant international locations. The civilizational bonding is one other issue that must be factored in consensus constructing relating to bigger pursuits of humanity. It’s time that Vietnam specifically must retrospect why it’s reticent to this point and nonetheless proceed to remain out of such a noble initiative. By November 2023, the overall variety of members had swelled to 106. Vietnam nonetheless continues to debate. That’s regrettable. 

When the ISA was created, invites had been despatched to all nation states mendacity within the Torrid Zone, between the Tropic of Most cancers and Tropic of Capricorn, to affix the alliance. It’s because geographically these “sunshine international locations” obtain the very best ranges of daylight all year long. This may be harnessed. For the reason that entirety of the Southeast area lies within the Torrid Zone, it makes it supreme for the photo voltaic business. A number of of those states have made progress in solar energy area. Some such initiatives embrace floating photo voltaic farm in Singapore and big rooftop photo voltaic installations in Vietnam. Certainly, India and Vietnam are ranked among the many high 5 states on this planet when it comes to photo voltaic capability.     

When India hosted the Sixth Meeting of the ISA at Bharat Mandapam, in New Delhi on 31 October 2023 presided over by the Union Minister for Energy and New & Renewable Vitality, R. Ok. Singh in his capability because the President of the ISA Meeting and ministers from 20 international locations and delegates from throughout 116 Member and Signatory international locations participated within the Meeting, Vietnam misplaced an enormous alternative to overlook out by not being a member. (2) Certainly, there’s a persuasive argument that India and ASEAN with a lot convergence of pursuits in a spread of area areas have to be collectively to work for the success of the ISA in order that the area go by the essential years of transition to renewable sources of power. (3)  

Certainly, photo voltaic power is already within the forefront of crucial applied sciences. Right here, as a accountable participant India can play a management function within the space of power transition. Since conventional backers like China and South Korea are shifting in direction of renewable, the ASEAN’s imaginative and prescient must be to endorse India to play an energetic function in driving funding and collaborating to arrange trans-border photo voltaic initiatives. 

World Bio-fuel Alliance (GBA)

The second initiative is the World Bio-fuel Alliance. This was launched by Prime Minister Modi together with the leaders of Singapore, Bangladesh, Italy, US, Brazil, Argentina, Mauritius and UAE on 9 September 2023 on the sidelines of the G-20 summit in New Delhi. The GBA had been within the works for a while and is a key initiative and precedence beneath India’s G20 presidency.

The GBA intends to expedite the worldwide replace of bio-fuels by facilitating know-how developments, intensifying utilisation of sustainable bio-fuels, shaping sturdy normal setting and certification by the participation of a large spectrum of stakeholders. The federal government media launch said that the alliance will act as a central repository of data and an professional hub. It additional said that the alliance goals to function a catalytic platform, fostering international collaboration for the development and widespread adoption of bio-fuels. (4)

As quickly as PM Modi launched the GBA, 19 international locations and 12 international our bodies agreed to affix instantly. (5) Subsequently three extra international locations joined the alliance. (6) The alliance which incorporates high producers Brazil and the US, will assist the worldwide marketplace for commerce in bio-fuels, which is obtained from biomass. This initiative shall assist speed up international efforts to satisfy web zero emissions targets by facilitating commerce in bio-fuels derived from sources together with plant and animal waste. (7)

The truth is PM Modi’s push for the GBA mirrors the ISA, each of which purpose to deliver clear and inexpensive power inside the attain of all. A report by the Worldwide Vitality Company says that international sustainable bio-fuels manufacturing would wish to triple by 2030 to place the world’s power system on monitor in direction of web zero emission by 2050. (8) 

For India, the success of this initiative may be very import as a result of India is the world’s third-biggest oil importer and shopper. At current, it imports 85 per cent of its crude wants and is steadily constructing capability to extend its output of bio-fuels. India has set a goal to develop into carbon impartial by 2070 and subsequently increasing use of bio-fuels within the transport sector. Its deadline for doubling nationwide ethanol mixing in gasoline to twenty per cent is superior by 5 years to 2025. India has a plan in place to construct 12 bio-refineries to supply gasoline from gadgets together with crop stubble, plant waste and municipal strong waste.  (9)

Surprisingly, besides in all probability Singapore, as per out there data, not one of the ASEAN bloc members have joined the alliance. Just like the ISA’s case, Vietnam’s stance in staying out raises query about if it has began viewing its relations with India in a different way.   


  1.  “Worldwide Photo voltaic Alliance”, 30 September 2023, 
  3.  Arjun Gargeyas, “Case for an India-led Southeast Asian photo voltaic alliance”, 19 August 2021,
  5.  Sukalp Sharma, “PM formally launches World Biofuels Alliance; 19 international locations, 12 international our bodies agree to affix”, 10 September 2023, 
  6.  “India Invitations World South to affix the biofuel alliance”, 18 November 2023, 
  7.  Nidhi Verma, “India makes clear power push at G20 with international biofuel alliance”, 9 November 2023,  
  8.  “Oil Market Report, July 202,  
  9.  Nidhi Verma, n. 7.