Brazil Power Profile: Largest Producer Of Petroleum And Different Liquids In South America – Evaluation

Brazil’s power combine is numerous; hydropower, fossil fuels, biofuels, wind power, and solar energy all make vital contributions. Brazil’s complete power manufacturing elevated by a mean annual progress price of 1.5% from 2011 to 2021. Petroleum and different liquids accounted for many of the power manufacturing improve, adopted by pure gasoline. Brazil’s power manufacturing in 2021 accounted for two.0% of worldwide manufacturing and 48.8% of South America’s complete.

Power consumption in Brazil elevated by a mean annual progress price of 0.5% between 2011 and 2021, in contrast with 3.3% between 2000 and 2010, pushed by Brazil’s actual GDP per capita progress. Brazil remained one of many world’s largest power customers, accounting for two.0% of worldwide consumption and 53.3% of South America’s consumption. In Brazil, the economic and transportation sectors use many of the power.

Crude oil and different petroleum liquids manufacturing contributes considerably to Brazil’s complete power manufacturing, accounting for 54.0% of complete power manufacturing and 44.2% of complete power consumption in 2021. Brazil is the biggest producer of petroleum and different liquids in South America and the ninth largest on the earth, accounting for 3.5% of worldwide output in 2021.

Brazil’s pure gasoline and liquefied pure gasoline (LNG) market is increasing due to rising home consumption, infrastructure improvement, and market reforms. Pure gasoline accounted for 7% of Brazil’s complete power manufacturing in 2021, up from 5% in 2011, and pure gasoline accounted for 12% of complete power consumption in 2021, up from 8% in 2011. In 2021, Brazil applied reforms within the pure gasoline sector to extend competitors, amongst different targets. The New Fuel Legislation, accredited in 2020, goals to make the market extra aggressive, promote third-party entry to infrastructure, and entice personal funding within the sector.

Brazil is the world’s third-largest hydropower producer, behind China and Canada. Brazil generated 363 terawatthours of electrical energy in 2021, accounting for 9% of worldwide hydropower output.1

In 2021, 20% of all international biofuels had been produced and 21% of complete international biofuels had been consumed in Brazil. For 2023, the Brazilian authorities elevated the nationwide biodiesel mixing mandate from 10% to 12%.2 This variation means elevated home demand for biodiesel and upstream merchandise, significantly soy oil, which accounts for about 70% of the feedstock used to supply biodiesel in Brazil.3

Progress in Brazil’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuels has slowed. Between 2011 and 2021, CO2 emissions in Brazil elevated on common at an annual price of 0.9%, in contrast with 1.8% between 2000 and 2010. Brazil’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuels have shifted from petroleum to cleaner-burning pure gasoline. Brazil has no legal guidelines or insurance policies requiring the early retirement of carbon-based technology.4 In 2022, Brazil’s authorities revealed a decree that established the Nationwide System for Decreasing Greenhouse Fuel Emissions (SINARE) and the process for creating Sectoral Plans for Local weather Change Mitigation.5

Petroleum and different liquids

Brazil held the second most crude oil reserves in Central America and South America in 2022, behind Venezuela, with roughly 13.24 billion barrels.6 Since 2006, huge offshore oil reserves have been found deep beneath a layer of salt referred to as the pre-salt layer off the coast of Brazil, considerably boosting the nation’s crude oil manufacturing. These oil deposits embody the pre-salt fields of Tupi, Buzios, and Sapinhoá within the Santos Basin, in addition to different deposits within the Campos Basin within the South Atlantic, south of Rio de Janeiro.7 Brazil’s reserves will seemingly proceed to develop as exploration and improvement drilling proceed. Baker Hughes’s Worldwide Rig Rely confirmed 18 energetic rigs on the finish of July 2023, up from 11 the earlier 12 months.8

Petrobras (Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.), Brazil’s state-owned oil and pure gasoline firm, has been the first operator accountable for exploring and creating the pre-salt reserves. In 2010, Brazil launched the Pre-Salt Legislation. The laws established major tips for exploration and manufacturing, together with using production-sharing agreements (PSAs) reasonably than concession agreements. Petrobras was designated because the operator within the pre-salt oil area, with a minimal 30% stake. It additionally appointed the general public firm Pré-Sal Petróleo SA (PPSA) because the supervisor of all PSAs in 2013 and required all international corporations wishing to drill within the space to affix a consortium with Petrobras and PPSA. Following criticism, the Pre-Salt Legislation was amended in 2016 to alleviate Petrobras of its obligation to carry a 30% working curiosity in future initiatives, but it surely additionally granted the corporate an non-obligatory proper of desire.9

In 2018, Brazil lowered necessities for utilizing regionally produced items and providers, or native content material, which had beforehand contributed to delays. Brazil additionally has restored an everyday schedule of annual licensing gross sales. Shell, BP, TotalEnergies, Repsol, Chevron, Galp Energia, Equinor, Sinopec, and Sinochem are among the many worldwide oil corporations taking part within the PSA with deepwater operations expertise. Petrobras, PetroRio, and different home corporations are additionally concerned within the PSAs.10 The objective of this market liberalization is to extend effectivity, stimulate innovation, and improve crude oil manufacturing. As of July 2023, Petrobras produced almost 63% of Brazil’s crude oil.

Brazil’s crude oil manufacturing has been steadily growing due to the event of pre-salt reserves. In 2022, Brazil produced roughly 3.2 million barrels per day (b/d) of petroleum and different liquids, up from 2.7 million b/d in 2012. Oil manufacturing from Brazil’s pre-salt fields exceeded that of the nation’s different fields for the primary time in 2018. In 2020, output from pre-salt fields reached a brand new excessive of two.8 million b/d, accounting for 70% of Brazil’s output. As of 2023, Brazil ranks among the many high 10 international oil producers.11

Petrobras, which controls greater than 90% of the home market, has elevated pre-salt properly productiveness by 30% since 2010, whereas decreasing each the variety of wells required to achieve capability and the time required to construct them. Pre-salt breakevens have fallen from $70 per barrel in 2014 to lower than $35 in 2022, attracting larger personal sector participation. Favorable regulatory and tax reforms, the pooled experience of Petrobras and three way partnership companions, and technological developments in subsea and topsides infrastructure have resulted in a pointy lower in prices.12

Brazil’s refinery portfolio consists of 19 refineries with a mixed processing capability of roughly 2.4 million b/d.13 The refineries produce a wide range of oil merchandise, together with diesel, gasoline, naphtha, jet gasoline, liquefied petroleum gasoline, and lubricants, in addition to different substances used as feedstock for a wide range of different merchandise.14 Since 2016, Petrobras has used a aggressive pricing scheme to set wholesale costs at its refineries.

To scale back debt and concentrate on its core upstream enterprise, Petrobras introduced plans to promote a collection of refineries in 2019, initiated by the corporate’s earlier administration below former President Jair Bolsonaro. As of August 2023, Petrobras has accomplished the sale of Potiguar Clara Camarão Refinery (RPCC) to 3R Portiguar SA, Paraná Xisto SA (Unidade de Industrializacao do Xisto) to Forbes & Manhattan Sources Inc, Refinaria de Mataripe (RLAM) to Acelen (Mubadala Capital), Refinaria Lubrificantes e Derivados do Nordeste (LUBNOR) to Grepar Participações, and Refinaria Isaac Sabba (REMAN) to Ream Participações SA.15, 16, 17 Petrobras’s new administration determined to halt the divestment course of below Brazil’s present President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. As of 2023, Petrobras operated 78% of Brazil’s refining capability, with refineries situated primarily within the nation’s southeastern industrial heartland.

Pure gasoline and LNG

Brazil had 13.4 trillion cubic ft (Tcf) of pure gasoline reserves as of January 2023, the fourth highest in Central America and South America. Related gasoline from oil fields makes up many of the confirmed pure gasoline reserves within the nation, significantly pre-salt reserves, with 76% situated offshore, largely within the Santos Basin. The remaining 24% of confirmed pure gasoline is situated onshore, primarily within the Solimões Basin and Paranaíba Basin.18

Brazil’s pure gasoline provide is made up of home manufacturing, Bolivian imports, and LNG cargoes. Brazil’s pure gasoline manufacturing reached 839 billion cubic ft (Bcf) in 2021, up by 1% from 2020. Three basins drive the nation’s pure gasoline manufacturing: Santos, Campos, and Espirito Santo.

Most of Brazil’s pure gasoline output is reinjected reasonably than bought within the home market. Reinjection is used to enhance oil restoration. Petrobras is Brazil’s largest pure gasoline producer. As of July 2023, Petrobras produced 64.8% of Brazil’s pure gasoline, based on Brazil’s power regulator referred to as the Nationwide Company for Petroleum, Pure Fuel and Biofuels (ANP). Different producers of pure gasoline embody the home firm, Eneva, and three main worldwide corporations: Shell, Galp, and Repsol.

Routes 1 and a pair of are the 2 most important offshore routes for pure gasoline pipelines in Brazil. Route 1 primarily transports pure gasoline from the Tupi, Sapinhoá, and Mexilho fields to Petrobras’s Caraguatatuba processing unit in São Paulo state.19 Route 2 transports pure gasoline from Búzios, Tupi, Atapu, Sururu, and different fields to Cabiúnas Fuel Therapy Terminal in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro state.20 The Route 3 pipeline is at the moment below building and is scheduled to be operational in 2024.21 This pipeline will provide pure gasoline to the GasLub advanced in Rio de Janeiro state.22

Brazil’s pure gasoline market faces some challenges together with the far distances between offshore pure gasoline fields and the coast in addition to restricted pure gasoline pipeline infrastructure.23 The New Fuel Legislation of 2021 seeks to steadily unbundle the market, creating the muse for a extra aggressive pure gasoline market in Brazil. The legislation goals to enhance the bodily flexibility of the pure gasoline system, enable for quicker supply of pure gasoline, foster competitors, and make it simpler to combine a larger share of intermittent renewables into Brazil’s power system. The ANP now has extra authority to advertise competitors and cut back market focus. Nevertheless, the liberalization course of remains to be in its early levels. Petrobras nonetheless owns most upstream pure gasoline initiatives, pure gasoline processing models, and different pure gasoline infrastructure.24, 25, 26

Brazilian industries, thermal energy vegetation, refineries, and fertilizer vegetation account for many pure gasoline demand. As of 2020, the economic sector consumed most of Brazil’s pure gasoline (67% of complete pure gasoline consumption).27 Pure gasoline is utilized in industries similar to petrochemicals, fertilizers, metal, ceramics, and meals processing for course of heating, energy technology, and as a feedstock.28 The southeastern area has the very best demand, adopted by the northeastern area. A big portion of Brazil’s territory doesn’t but have entry to the pipeline grid, which is principally concentrated in coastal states, the place many of the demand is situated.

Brazil has elevated the variety of pure gas-fired energy vegetation over latest years. They’re excessive effectivity, low emissions services. Brazil’s heavy reliance on hydropower means it must have a pure gas-fired energy backup for when water ranges are low.29

Pure gasoline is more and more used as a transportation gasoline in Brazil, growing from a 17% share of consumption in 2010 to 26% in 2020. The pure gas-powered automotive fleet consists primarily of sunshine business and passenger automobiles. Residential and business demand account for a minor portion of complete demand, representing a 5% share of pure gasoline consumption in 2020. Many of the demand is concentrated within the nation’s southeastern area, the place the pipeline distribution system is extra developed.30

Coal

Brazil has probably the most coal reserves in Central America and South America, with 7.3 billion brief tons as of 2021, amounting to 0.6% of the world’s coal reserves. This quantity equals 257 occasions the annual consumption in Brazil. The Paraná Basin has eight massive coal deposits related to Permian sedimentary successions. Seven of those deposits are in Rio Grande do Sul, and the remaining one is in Santa Catarina. Rio Grande do Sul has many of the complete coal assets.31 Brazil’s reserves are primarily made up of bituminous and subbituminous coal.

Brazil was the second-largest coal producer in Central America and South America in 2021, after Colombia. 

Brazil’s coal mining {industry} is managed by small-scale mining operations. The nation produced roughly 7.3 million brief tons of coal in 2021, representing a 19% improve over the earlier 12 months. Coal accounted for 0.9% of Brazil’s complete power manufacturing in 2021. About 70% of coal produced in Brazil in 2021 was subbituminous, 28% was lignite, and a pair of% was bituminous.32

Brazil was the very best coal shopper in Central America and South America in 2021. Brazil consumed roughly 28.3 million brief tons of coal in 2021, an 18% improve from 2020. In 2021, coal consumption in Brazil was the third-highest nonrenewable supply, accounting for about 5.5% of the nation’s complete nonrenewable consumption. Many of the coal produced (98% of complete) is utilized in industrial processes.33Brazil’s coal is unsuitable to be used within the metal {industry} due to its excessive ash content material and low calorific content material.34 Because of this, solely 26% of home coal manufacturing is consumed, and the rest is exported.

Biofuels

Brazil is the second-largest producer of biofuels on the earth behind the US, accounting for a worldwide share of 20% in 2021.35 From 2011 to 2021, Brazil’s biofuel manufacturing elevated at a mean annual progress price of three%, whereas biofuel consumption elevated at a mean annual progress price of 4%. Nevertheless, Brazil’s seasonal manufacturing of biofuels ends in seasonal consumption of biofuels, necessitating imports from overseas in the course of the offseason for biofuels output. In 2021, Brazil consumed 569,000 b/d of biofuels: 79% was bioethanol, and 21% was biodiesel.36

Brazil’s major biofuel is gasoline ethanol, primarily derived from sugarcane (about 96% of complete ethanol manufacturing). Brazil is the world’s largest producer of sugarcane. Brazil produced 451,000 b/d of gasoline ethanol in 2021, accounting for 26% of worldwide output.37 Through the crop manufacturing cycle in 2021, Brazil skilled a drought and low temperatures. These circumstances restricted the productiveness of key sugarcane-producing areas.38 Because of this, gasoline ethanol manufacturing fell by 15% in 2021 in comparison with 2020. The nation has roughly 350 sugarcane ethanol vegetation, the vast majority of that are concentrated alongside the coast.

The plentiful and low cost provides in Brazil’s Heart-West area attracted funding within the corn ethanol sector lately. Corn has been used to supply a small however rising portion of Brazilian ethanol since 2014. Brazil at the moment has 16 corn ethanol vegetation within the Heart-West states of Mato Grosso, Goias, and Mato Grosso do Sul. At the very least 4 models are corn-only vegetation, and the remaining flex vegetation can produce ethanol from each sugarcane and corn.39

Brazil’s biodiesel manufacturing has elevated considerably during the last decade. Brazil produced 118,000 b/d of biodiesel in 2021, a 6% improve over the earlier 12 months.40 As of 2022, roughly 79% of biodiesel produced is created from soybean oil and 15% is created from animal fats. As of 2021, the nation has 57 biodiesel manufacturing vegetation, and 60% of them are within the central-western area, which has a surplus of soybeans.41Greater than 4.9 million cubic meters of soybean oil had been used for biodiesel manufacturing in 2021.42

Biofuels account for 25% of Brazil’s transportation fuels, a better share than in most different nations.43 Brazil has the biggest fleet of flex-fuel automobiles on the earth, which may run on any mixture of gasoline and ethanol, or as much as 100% ethanol. Flex-fuel automobiles account for 85% of all automobiles on the street in Brazil and 83% of all new mild automobile gross sales in 2022.44 Since 1977, Brazil has had a compulsory ethanol-use mandate that requires a sure share of ethanol to be blended with gasoline. The present nationwide mixing mandate is 27% ethanol (E27) in common gasoline and 12% ethanol (E12) in premium gasoline. Brazil has a biodiesel mixing mandate at 12%.45

Electrical energy

Brazil was the world’s sixth-largest electrical energy generator in 2021, with 663 terawatthours generated, an 8% improve from 2020. Brazil’s technology in 2021 represented 2% of complete international electrical energy technology.46 From 2011 to 2021, Brazil’s electrical energy technology elevated by a mean progress price of two.4% per 12 months. This common annual progress was largely pushed by solar energy (up by 199%), wind energy (up by 40%), and fossil fuels (up by 13%) over the identical interval. An important sources of electrical energy technology in Brazil in 2021 had been hydropower (55% of complete electrical energy), pure gasoline (15% of complete electrical energy), and wind (11% of complete electrical energy).47 Industrial (39% of complete electrical energy consumption), residential (29%), and business and public providers (25%) customers use most of Brazil’s electrical energy.

To ship electrical energy all through the nation, Brazil has an enormous transmission and distribution community. Brazil’s Nationwide Interconnected System (SIN) is a big community that serves 98% of the electrical energy market in Brazil. The SIN is made up of a number of particular person energy methods that talk through a community of tie traces, making certain that electrical energy from varied sources is accessible48 and could be coordinated by Brazil’s 102 energy distribution corporations.49 The distribution of electrical energy in Brazil is sort of common; 99% of the inhabitants has entry to some type of electrical energy. Brazil’s high 10 electrical energy distribution corporations accounted for about 57% of the full distributed electrical energy.50

The Nationwide Electrical Power Company (ANEEL) regulates Brazil’s electrical energy market, establishing guidelines and rules, selling competitors, and regulating the electrical energy sector.

To finance investments and supply higher providers, Brazil’s largest electrical energy holding firm, Electrobras, was privatized in 2022. Brazil’s authorities beforehand owned 72% of the corporate. The privatization was the biggest within the nation in over twenty years. Eletrobras subsidiaries management roughly 40% of Brazil’s technology capability and 69% of the Nationwide Interconnected System.51

Brazil will increase new technology capability by auction-based renewable procurement, and contracts sometimes final 15 to 30 years. Auctions are used to award energy buy agreements (PPAs) to numerous turbines, together with renewable power initiatives, available in the market.52 These auctions function a venue for challenge builders to compete for contracts to promote electrical energy to distribution corporations. The framework consists of contracts to cut back danger for buyers.53

In 2021, hydropower accounted for an estimated 9.2% of Brazil’s complete power manufacturing and 54.8% of complete electrical energy technology. Hydropower is the second most typical kind of power consumed in Brazil, accounting for an estimated 22.2% of complete power consumption. Brazil has an abundance of rivers and has constructed many large-scale hydroelectric vegetation, with a complete put in capability of 99,828 megawatts (MW). The Itaipu Dam, situated on the Paraná River between Brazil and Paraguay, has the world’s third-highest put in hydroelectric capability with 14,000 MW. Brazil and Paraguay have every an put in capability of seven,000 MW.54 One other notable hydroelectric challenge in Brazil is the Belo Monte Dam, situated on the Xingu River within the state of Pará. It has the fifth-highest put in hydroelectric capability of round 11,233 MW.55 Due to its impression on the Amazon rainforest and native indigenous communities, the Belo Monte Dam has raised some environmental and social considerations.56 Droughts and lowered water availability can decrease reservoir ranges and, because of this, restrict hydroelectric energy technology. Brazil has skilled durations of low water ranges in its reservoirs, which have hampered the nation’s skill to make sure a adequate provide of electrical energy solely from hydroelectricity.57 Regardless of the challenges, Brazil continues to extend hydroelectric capability and spend money on new initiatives.58

In 2021, the nation’s put in capability from fossil fuels was 43.2 gigawatts (GW), accounting for 21% of complete electrical capability. Brazil generated 145,386 gigawatthours (GWh) of electrical energy from fossil fuels in the identical 12 months, accounting for 22% of complete electrical energy technology. During times of low water availability or excessive electrical energy demand, electrical energy from fossil fuels is ceaselessly used to complement hydroelectric energy. The share of electrical energy from pure gasoline amongst fossil fuels elevated from 48% in 2011 to 66% in 2021. Coal-fired energy vegetation play a smaller function in Brazil’s electrical energy technology, accounting for 4% of complete electrical energy technology in 2021. Coal is primarily utilized in areas with coal deposits, such because the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The share of coal amongst fossil fuels has decreased from 25% in 2011 to 18% in 2021, reflecting efforts to transition to cleaner power sources.59 Brazil has a small variety of oil-fired energy vegetation that assist to maintain the electrical energy grid versatile and steady, accounting for 3.4% of complete electrical energy technology. Nevertheless, due to increased prices and environmental considerations, using oil for electrical energy technology is proscribed.

Brazil is the world’s fifth-largest generator of wind power.60 With 21 GW of put in capability, Brazil generated 71,500 GWh of wind energy in 2021, accounting for 11% of the nation’s complete electrical energy technology. Wind energy is Brazil’s third-largest supply of electrical energy technology after hydropower and pure gasoline.61 Wind energy technology in Brazil has grown lately. This enlargement was the results of authorities initiatives and private-sector investments.62 Brazil solely has onshore wind farms as of 2022 as a result of onshore wind farms are inexpensive and extra versatile than offshore initiatives.63 As of 2022, Brazil has 801 onshore wind farms, most of that are within the northeastern area of the nation, with 219 of them in Bahia, 217 in Rio Grande do Norte, and 101 in Ceará.64 In 2022, the Brazilian Senate handed a invoice that proposes a regulatory framework for the implementation of offshore wind initiatives.65

With 13 GW of put in solar energy capability, Brazil was the Tenth-largest photo voltaic electrical energy generator in 2021.66 Solar energy’s share of complete electrical energy technology in Brazil elevated from 0% to three% between 2011 and 2021.67 As of 2022, Brazil had 168 photo voltaic initiatives in operation, all with photovoltaic (PV) methods, primarily within the central and northeastern areas.68 To encourage the event of solar energy, the Brazilian authorities has applied tax breaks, financing packages, and internet metering rules.69

Brazil’s biomass and waste market generated 8% (roughly 51,435 GWh) of complete electrical energy technology within the nation in 2021.70 As of 2020, roughly 92% of biomass and waste electrical energy technology was generated by major strong biofuels, 4% by industrial waste, 3% by biogases, and 1% by liquid biofuels.71 The biomass energy sector in Brazil is inextricably linked to the manufacturing of sugarcane ethanol. The identical sugarcane feedstock used to supply ethanol additionally produces vital quantities of biomass residues, similar to bagasse, that are then used to generate electrical energy. This integration of the biofuels and biomass energy sectors helps to make assets extra sustainable and environment friendly.72 Brazil’s put in capability from biomass and waste was 16 GW in 2021.73 Brazil was the world’s third-largest biomass and waste electrical energy generator in 2021, accounting for 8% of the world’s complete. Biomass is much less aggressive than wind and photo voltaic technology.74 As such, the share of biomass and waste electrical energy technology amongst non-hydroelectric renewables has declined from 92% in 2011 to 37% in 2021, trailing wind.75 As of 2022, Brazil had 230 biomass and waste energy vegetation in operation with 12 further vegetation introduced to open.76

Brazil was the highest generator of electrical energy from nuclear energy vegetation in Central America and South America with 15 billion kilowatthours generated in 2021.77 Eletrobras Eletronuclear SA operates two nuclear energy vegetation in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, referred to as Angra 1 and Angra 2. Angra 1 has been in operation since 1985, and Angra 2 started in 2001. These vegetation have a complete put in capability of round 2 GW and contribute considerably to Brazil’s electrical energy technology. Angra 3 is a 3rd nuclear energy plant that has been below building since 1984 as a result of a number of delays and challenges have hampered its completion. Angra 3 is scheduled to start working in 2028 with an put in capability of round 1.4 GW.78

Brazil’s nuclear energy vegetation present a constant supply of baseload electrical energy, which contributes to total power safety and grid stability. Brazil has vital uranium reserves and is able to mining, processing, and enriching uranium to be used in nuclear reactors.79 The one uranium producer is the state-run Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB). In 2022, the Brazilian Decrease Home accredited a constitutional modification that allowed the personal sector to enter the uranium {industry}.80

Power Commerce

Brazil has been a crude oil internet exporter since 2006. The share of crude oil exports elevated from 5% of complete export quantity in 2012 to 9% in 2022, rating third in Brazil’s commodity basket.81 Brazil’s crude oil is primarily exported to Asian nations (57%), significantly China (41%), in addition to Europe (22%) and the US (12%). To satisfy home demand, the nation imports a major quantity of refined petroleum merchandise, accounting for 14% of complete imports in 2022, the very best in Brazil’s product basket.82 Near 53% of those imports come from the US, 10% come from India, and 9% come from the United Arab Emirates.83 Brazil’s authorities intends to modernize and broaden its refining capability to cut back reliance on imports and improve the nation’s self-sufficiency in assembly refined product wants.84

Brazil is a internet importer of pure gasoline and liquefied pure gasoline (LNG). Almost all of Brazil’s pure gasoline in a gaseous state comes from Bolivia. Brazil has elevated its imports of LNG to fulfill rising pure gasoline demand, growing LNG imports by a mean annual price of 75% between 2012 and 2022. LNG is imported through coastal regasification terminals in Guanabara Bay and the Pecém Port.85 In 2022, many of the nation’s LNG imports got here from the US (76%) and Qatar (14%).86

Brazil depends on imports to fulfill its coal wants due to restricted home coal manufacturing. In 2022, coal ranked because the second-highest import commodity in Brazil, accounting for 11% of complete imports. The imported coal is primarily utilized in industrial processes that require particular coal qualities. Many of the home coal manufacturing in Brazil is used for energy technology, however coal imports in Brazil are primarily used for metal making.87 In 2022, Brazil primarily imported coal from Australia (33%), the US (30%), and Colombia (17%).88

Brazil is a internet exporter of biofuels. In 2022, Brazil exported 24% of the world’s ethanol, making it the world’s highest ethanol exporter, which solely accounted for 0.3% of Brazil’s complete exports. As gasoline costs rose in 2022, so did demand internationally for cheaper E10 gasoline (gasoline containing 10% ethanol).89 As such, the quantity of Brazil’s ethanol exports elevated by 25% in 2022 from the 12 months prior. Of complete ethanol exports in 2022, 31% went to South Korea, 29% to the Netherlands, and 19% to the US.90 Brazil’s ethanol exports profit from advantageous commerce agreements, such because the Brazil-United States Ethanol Cooperation Settlement, which facilitates ethanol commerce between the 2 nations.91 Due to the favorable carbon depth score that Brazil’s sugarcane ethanol receives below California’s Low Carbon Gasoline Customary (LCFS), California receives the vast majority of ethanol shipped to the US. Brazil’s ethanol is ceaselessly shipped to the U.S. Gulf Coast and transformed to ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) earlier than being shipped to Japan.92 Brazil’s biodiesel exports stay low due to the excessive price of manufacturing. Brazil’s Nationwide Company for Petroleum, Pure Fuel and Biofuels continues to ban biodiesel imports besides in “distinctive circumstances,” limiting import volumes.

Brazil has interconnected transmission grids that enable for the commerce of electrical energy with neighboring nations. Electrical energy interconnections have been established with Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Venezuela, permitting for the import and export of electrical energy primarily based on provide and demand circumstances.93 Brazil will get a big portion of its electrical energy from the Itaipu dam and exports extra electrical energy to neighboring nations. Argentina is Brazil’s most important electrical energy export market.94 Brazil imports electrical energy from Uruguay to assist meet peak electrical energy demand.95

Brazil is a member of the Southern Frequent Market (Mercosur), which promotes power integration amongst its member nations. This regional cooperation consists of initiatives similar to power coverage harmonization, power infrastructure interconnection, and power commerce facilitation inside the Mercosur bloc.96

Supply: This text was revealed by EIA

Endnotes

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